Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP), Plasma


VIP is a ubiquitous peptide, with a wide profile of physiological actions. In addition to its role in the relaxation of smooth-muscle cells and salivary secretion, it appears to have a role in synaptic function either as a neuromodulator or as a neurotransmitter. VIP is present in high concentrations in the brain within VIP containing neurones and acts as a neuronal survival factor in various injury conditions. Moreover, VIP has immunoregulatory effects; nitric oxide and stimulators of immune cells such as lipopolysaccharides, cytokines, ConA, and anti-T cell receptor antibodies induce its release. VIP is a Th2 type immune response promoter; it inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, and nitric oxide and stimulates the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. VIP also regulates the macrophage expression of B7 (immunoregulatory molecules) and inhibits T cell proliferation.

دواعي الإستعمال

VIPOMAs, which mostly originate from the pancreas, are associated with elevated levels of VIP. Diagnosis of pancreatic islet cell tumours can be enhanced by testing for VIP. Approximately 20-40% of patients with glucagonomas may have raised fasting VIP levels.

نوع العينة والكمية والشروط

Aprotenin EDTA Plasma Frozen

إحتياطات خاصة

Collect blood in Aprotenin EDTA vacutainer tube.

المعدل الطبيعي

< 71 pg/mL

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