Beta-2-Microglobulin (β2-M), Serum/Plasma


β2-M is a single polypeptide chain globulin produced by all MHC class I carrying cells. Its tridimensional structure and amino acid sequence are homologous to immunoglobulin constant domains. The main function of β2-M is to stabilise the structure of MHC class I molecules thus, allowing for their expression on cell surfaces. β2-M synthesis is stimulated in various conditions and is characterised by monoclonal or polyclonal activation and proliferation of lymphoid cells such as malignant tumours, lymphoproliferative B cell disorders, and various chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease, viral hepatitis, and other viral infections. Decreased renal function results in a proportional rise in serum β2-M levels.


Increased β2-M levels are found in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases, malignant tumours, as well as in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic viral infections. β2-M is of prognostic value in patients with myeloma. Urinary β2-M is used as a marker of proximal tubular dysfunction (impairment of tubular uptake of β2-M).

Sample Type, Quantity & Conditions

1 ml Serum 1 ml K2-EDTA or Li-Heparin Plasma Stability: 3 Days at 2-8 °C 6 Months at (-15)-(-25) °C

Special Precautions

Normal Range

9- 2.0 mg/L

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