Calcium, Serum/Plasma


Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. The average adult body contains in total approximately 1 kg, 99% of which is in the skeleton in the form of calcium phosphate salts. The source of calcium is dietary and it is absorbed in the gut. Vitamin D is an important cofactor in the intestinal absorption of calcium, as it increases the number of calcium binding proteins, involved in calcium absorption through the apical membrane of enterocytes in the small intestine. Calcium primarily is regulated by the actions of parathyroid hormone, Vitamin D, and calcitonin. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium and although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day.


Increased calcium levels are associated with hyperparathyroidism, bone disease such as Paget’s disease, malignancies such as breast, lung and kidney cancers, neoplasms of the oesophagus, pancreas, and bladder, lymphoma, multiple meyloma, and leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, sarcoidosis, vitamin D intoxication, thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, hypocalcaemia of infancy and others. Decreased levels are associated with hypoparathyroidism, pseudo-hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, alcoholism, pituitary hypo-function and inadequate nutrition.

Sample Type, Quantity & Conditions

1 ml Serum 1 ml Li-Heparin plasma Stability: 7 Days at 15-25 °C 3 Weeks at 2-8 °C 8 Months at (-15)-(-25) °C

Special Precautions

Obtain blood with minimal venous occlusion. Serum or Plasma should be separated from blood cells as soon as possible.

Normal Range

Adults: 8.2-10.2 mg/dL 2.05-2.55 mmol/L Children: 8.4-10.8 mg/dL 2.10-2.70 mmol/L

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