Protein Electrophoresis, Serum


Serum protein electrophoresis is often used as a screening procedure for the detection of various pathophysiologic states, such as inflammation,protein loss, gammopathies, and other dysproteinemias. α1- globulin fraction contains α1-antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, and α1-lipoproteins. It increases along with α-2 band in acute phase reaction. An increase in α-1 components alone may be seen in acute phase reactions accompanied by haemolysis, chronic hepatitis, pregnancy or estrogen therapy. Low or flat α curve occurs in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. α2-globulin fraction contains haptoglobin, α-2 macroglobulin, pre -β lipoprotein, ceruloplasmin and numerous enzyme and coagulation factors. It increases along with α-1 band in acute infections and rheumatic fever. Predominant increase in α-2 band occurs in diseases characterised by vasculitis.


Healthy children have higher levels of α 2 macroglobulin.β globulin fraction contains transferrin, hemopexin, β lipoproteins, various complement fractions, several enzymes and coagulation factors. It increases in iron deficiency anaemia (transferrin) or high levels of estrogens. It decreases in chronic inflammatory states, some instances of acquired liver disease, neoplasia, renal disease, nephrotic syndrome and chronic debilitating illnesses. γ globulin fraction contains the immunoglobulins. The presence of an M-band in this fraction is suggestive of multiple myeloma that can be further characterised by immunofixation. Hypergammaglobulinemia is indicative of a general rise in most immunoglobulins usually seen in chronic inflammatory disorders whereas hypo- or agammaglobulinema is seen in light chain disease and primary immune deficiency respiectively.

Sample Type, Quantity & Conditions

1 ml Serum Refrigerated

Special Precautions

State serum total protein and albumin. Separate serum from cells as soon as possible. Avoid plasma samples.

Normal Range

Albumin: 55.8-66.1 g/L α -1 Globulin: 2.9-4.9g/L α -2 Globulin: 7.1-11.8 g/L β1 Globulin: 4.7-7.2 g/L β2 Globulin: 3.2-6.5 g/L γ Globulin: 11.1-18.8 g/L

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