Protein Electrophoresis, Urine , 24 Hr


Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique where serum or urine is placed on a special medium (agarose gel) and exposed to an electric current to separate the protein into five components by size and electrical charge, those being albumin, alpha (α) 1-globulins (α1-antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein), α-2-globulins (haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, α2-antiplasmin, ceruloplasmin), beta (β) globulins (transferrin, LDL, complement) and gamma (γ) globulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG and IgM). In healthy individuals α 1 and α 2 do not appear in the urine. Abnormal paraproteins appear in the γ region and are seen in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma, and are useful in the diagnosis of these conditions.


This test is used in the diagnosis of selective and nonselective glomerular proteinuria, tubular proteinuria, mixed glomerular and tubular proteinuria, albuminuria and overflow proteinuria from acute phase response. It is also used to monitor patients with nephrotic syndrome and multiple myeloma and to evaluate macroglobulinaemia of Waldenstrom, lymphoma and amyloidosis. Increased glomerular permeability leads to higher concentrations of large proteins in the glomerular filtrate. In selective glomerular permeability, albumin, α-1 proteins and transferrin are the predominant proteins. On the other hand, tubular proteinuria is characterised with predominance of low molecular weight proteins (α-2 and β-2- microglobulins) and trace amounts of albumin.

Sample Type, Quantity & Conditions

10 ml Urine, 24 Hr Refrigerated

Special Precautions

Normal Range

By Report

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