Urine Analysis


Urine colour and glucose content should correlate with specific gravity. Value of pH should correlate inversely with ketone (acetone) level. The presence of Erythrocytes may signal damage to the renal glomeruli. The presence of Leukocytes represent inflammation and/ or infection in the urinary tract and indicate the need for urine culture especially when nitrite is positive. Crystals may indicate renal stones or may form at room temperature. Crystals may also be caused by certain drugs. White cell casts indicate the renal origin of leukocytes, and are most frequently found in acute pyelonephritis. Hyaline casts occur in physiological states such as after exercise and many types of renal diseases. Granular casts may be found after exercise and in a variety of glomerular and tubulointerstitial diseases such as acute tubular necrosis. Spermatozoa seen in male urine is related to recent or retrograde ejaculation.


A frequently performed test that gives a general indication of the patient’s overall state of health and more specifically the urinary tract.

Sample Type, Quantity & Conditions

10 ml of Urine Room Temperature

Special Precautions

It is important to examine fresh specimens, otherwise cells and casts may disintegrate or distort with bacterial infections.

Normal Range

pH: 4.5-8.0 Albumin: Negative Appearance: Clear Colour: Straw Glucose: Negative Ketones: Negative Nitrite: Negative Blood: Negative Protein: Negative Specific gravity: 1.003-1.030 Urobilinogen: Normal Bilirubin: Negative RBC: <5 x 10^6/L WBC: <10 x 10^6/L Casts: None Crystals: None

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